Monthly Non-Fossil Fuels News Commentary: July – August 2017
As reports of the border stand-off between India and China continue to hog headlines, one of the concerns raised is whether this would have a bearing on the solar sector in India because local project developers are dependent on solar cells and modules imported from China. Of the $2.34 billion worth of solar equipment brought into India in 2015-16, a staggering $1.96 billion (83.61 percent) worth of solar cells and modules were produced in China. India imported solar and photovoltaic cells worth about $826 million from China during the April-September period of 2016-17. Hero Future Energies believes that irrespective of the tensions, imports had to be impacted since the Indian government is already working on an anti-dumping duty petition filed by domestic manufacturers. MNRE said that the capacity of solar modules in India is 8,000 MW, while for cells it is 1,500 MW and this is not sufficient to achieve the government’s aims. Experts said that without cheap imported solar panels from China many of the projects that had bid down tariff for solar power in recent auctions would not be viable. India has already installed more solar capacity in the first six months of 2017 than in the entire 2016, according to a report by Mercom Capital Group, which tracks the Indian solar sector. Around 4,800 MW has already been commissioned in calendar year 2017, against 4,038 MW in 2016. The report expected an addition of 10,500 MW through the year, which will be another record, almost twice the 5,525 MW added in financial year 2016-17. But 2018 is likely to be a different story because of confusion over applicability of the GST on solar products, the report warned. The MNRE is urging the finance ministry to stick to the earlier 5% for all solar equipment, but a decision has yet to be announced. The sharp fall in solar tariffs at the last auctions held in May this year has also become a dampener, according to the report.
The Haryana government has waived intra-state wheeling charges, cross subsidy charges, transmission and distribution charges on the electricity generated from solar power plants in the state. Any investor, who installs a solar power plant at any place in the state, can sell this power to any private entity within the state at mutually agreed tariff without paying these charges. The solar power produced may be purchased by the Haryana Power Purchase Centre on the tariff finalized by inviting the tenders on competitive bids. The MNRE had raised the solar renewable purchase obligation targets for the obligated entities including distribution companies to 8 percent from the current level of 3 percent of power consumption.
The flag bearer of headline renewable energy growth, Madhya Pradesh, in a latest amendment has suggested taking away the “must-run” status of renewable and co-generation power projects. In the latest order by the MPERC, it has asked the “the generation from co-generation and renewable sources of energy to be subject to ‘scheduling’ and ‘merit order dispatch principles’ as decided by the commission from time to time.” The order pertains to the amendment in the MPERC (Cogeneration and Generation of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy) (Revision-I) Regulations, 2010. Sector and legal experts said this would harm the renewable energy projects, as the state would now have the freedom to back down from these whenever it wished to. Renewable power enjoys a “must-run” status across the country to ensure its integration in the grid and better returns to the developers. Legal experts said no Indian state has till yet removed the must-run status of renewable energy and this would set wrong precedent. Observers were of the opinion that solar power should compete with other sources of power to earn the title of having achieved cost parity (not just grid parity) with other sources of power.
Solar power tariff in the country has fallen by 80 percent since 2010. The maximum tariff for solar power was seen in December 2010 when 150 MW was sold at ₹ 12.76/kWh under the Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission. Since then, the tariff has fallen steadily with the lowest tariff of ₹ 2.44/kWh for 500 MW in Rajasthan. The solar power tariff has been falling only when the states or agencies go through the bid mode. Tamil Nadu which followed the power purchase agreement does not figure in the list of states that took advantage of falling solar power tariff until 2015. Solar power tariff across the country started falling from ₹ 6.88/kWh to ₹ 4.63/kWh in nine months of 2015. Compared to several sunshine countries, India’s solar power tariff is still high.
A plea seeking a ban on the manufacture, use and import of solar panels containing antimony, a heavy metal, has prompted the NGT to seek the reply from the Centre and the pollution control board. A bench headed by NGT Chairperson issued notice to the MNRE, the Ministry of Commerce and the CPCB and sought their response. Solar panels are used to convert sunlight into electricity. The plea said with increasing use of solar modules and panels under the National Solar Mission, the scientific disposal of antimony posed several problems for the environment. The petition claimed that antimony was at present being dumped in landfill sites along the solar panels which were crushed after use. It sought a direction to the CPCB to amend the E-Waste Rules, 2016 and bring antimony within scope of Rules 16 pertaining to hazardous substances. The plea said that the CPCB should pass a direction to permit import of only those solar modules that do not contain antimony. It also sought random sampling of the solar modules in the collaboration of an IIT to verify the existence of hazardous substances, including antimony. The petition asked for a direction to the respondents and the environment monitoring agencies to immediately undertake remedial measures to limit the damage caused to the environment by submitting an action plan showing how to deal with future disposal of solar and solar panels.
NTPC said ₹ 3-3.20/kWh tariff for solar power may be the new normal and can be achieved without the support of “cheap funds or cheap panels”, which have been a concern for the industry. Solar and wind energy units generate less than 10 percent of the global electricity output and have remained on the side-lines historically as these projects were taken up to fulfill a social responsibility towards clean energy. But these green energy sources have seen a decline in prices making them comparable to conventional energy and causing a disruption in the power sector. India too has rapidly scaled up its renewable energy capacity, led by solar power in the last few years. But the steep fall in tariff has triggered concerns over project viability. NTPC has commissioned 847 MW or renewable energy capacity, has 73 MW under execution and another 1,275 MW under tendering process. The company’s target is to develop 10 GW of renewable energy as a commitment to the government. It is also developing another 15 GW under National Solar Mission (Phase 2).
In the next two years, solar power will be cheaper than the electricity grid in the residential sector, says solar energy provider SunSource Energy which successfully implemented the first two phases of a 100 MW solar project in South East Asia. Stating that while the solar energy in India has already reached ‘grid parity’ in commercial, industrial and utility sectors, soon this would be achieved in residential sector as well. At present, India has installed capacity of 327 GW (One GW is equal to 1000 MW), of which about 40 GW is Solar (12 GW) and Wind energy (27 GW) combined. About 70 percent of power comes from coal-based power plants and the remaining from hydro and other sources like biogas. The solar company has designed and built over 100 solar projects across 18 states in India, with a focus on decentralised power projects. It is currently involved in nearly over 150 MW of solar projects in India and overseas.
Cautioning that India’s performance in renewable energy areas like solar, small hydro, biogas is not so encouraging, a parliamentary standing committee said that the government should not act as bystander and adopt more proactive approach to arrange finances for solar power projects. It also said that 40,000 MW target of grid connected rooftop solar by 2022 is “unrealistic” and it is “highly unlikely that this target will be achieved”. It suggested that government should give it a “serious relook” at it otherwise it will derail the National Solar Mission target of 100,000 MW by 2022. It also pressed upon government to “urgently formulate” a dedicated programme to establish India as a solar manufacturing hub. Prior to Paris Climate Summit in December 2015, the NDA government announced an ambitious renewable power programme of 175,000 MW which includes 100,000 MW solar power and 60,000 MW wind power. At present, India has a total of 58,303.35 MW of renewable power of which 32,508.17 MW comes from wind power alone, while solar energy accounts for 13,114.85 MW.
The infrastructure fund of multi-asset manager IDFC Alternatives is set to make its biggest acquisition till date by taking over the entire 200 MW of First Solar’s operational portfolio of solar power projects in India for around $300 million as consolidation picks up momentum in the renewable energy sector. These projects — seven in all — are located in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Arizona-headquartered First Solar is an American PV manufacturer of rigid thin film modules, or solar panels, and a provider of utility-scale PV power plants and supporting services like finance, construction, maintenance and end-of-life panel recycling. In India, it has supplied over 1 GW worth of panels while globally its supplies are worth over 17 GWs, according to the company. The First Solar acquisition will be carried out by a platform company wholly owned by IDFC’s infrastructure fund called Vector Green. Vector Green in the past has acquired a 24 MW wind asset from Naveen Jindal’s Jindal Steel and Power and another 40 MW solar project from Punj Lloyd. This would be its most ambitious takeover. The next 12 months will be interesting for wind and solar sectors from a regulatory and competitive intensity standpoint, IDFC said.
The National Association of Street Vendors of India estimates that there are around 30,000 street vendors in Bengaluru. Small businesses like these face innumerable challenges, given their make-shift existence. The Selco Foundation has been finding sustainable solutions for marginalised communities. It called for entries to build sustainable, cost-effective energy kiosks that can be used by street vendors and marginalised immigrant communities for their daily energy needs through the competition Design + Build 2017 in May. The pilot, to be built at a cost of ₹ 600,000, is to be set up at the Clarence School bus stop in Richards Town. Using solar power, it would be able to charge 60 lights, which would be rented out at ₹ 10 per light to vendors and community members on the street. Selco Foundation said the cost of power from these kiosks would be cheaper than kerosene lamps. In the long term, these kiosks could help in rural areas, for migrant or low-income communities and in disaster and relief situations.
A new report by HEAL, an European environmental non-profit has assessed the spending of seven economically powerful countries on fossil fuel subsidies and health costs associated with fossil fuel subsidies. India, according to the report spent as much as $16.9 billion on oil, gas and coal subsidies in 2013 and 2014 but health costs to meet the burden of air pollution linked diseases is eight times the fossil fuel subsidies at 140.7 billion dollars. The report ‘Hidden Price Tags’, highlights that India can provide 375 million households with solar lamps or train nearly 32,000 extra doctors for rural areas with the fossil fuel subsidy spending of $16.9 billion annually. This is assessed considering that each solar lamp costs about $22.5, and AIIMS recent estimates suggest a cost of ₹ 17 million to educate a doctor. The subsidy amount could even fund 24% of the total money needed to implement health care coverage for all Indians, the report suggests. On India’s spending on fossil fuel subsidies, researchers from the PHFI who drafted the India chapter noted that two-thirds of electricity in India continues to be generated from coal, one of the biggest contributors of air pollution. LPG and Kerosene are also subsidized. The report said not all fossil fuels are bad, in fact LPG has significant health benefits when its used to substitute biomass or coal as cooking fuel.
The UP government issued notice to six private companies, including Adani Green Energy, for delay in setting up solar power plants in UP. The decision was taken after the companies did not set up solar power plants, despite entering into an agreement for it, two years ago. UPPCL issued the ‘Procure Preliminary Default’ notice to six companies, namely Adani Green Energy Ltd, Pinnacle Air Pvt Ltd, Awadh Rubber Prop, Madras Ilastomar Ltd, Sudhakar Infratech Private Ltd and Shastradhara Energy Private Ltd, seeking cancellation of their agreement with the New Energy Development Authority. UPPCL said the state government got into an agreement with 15 companies in 2015 under the solar power policy of 2013. Of these, nine installed solar power plants with a total capacity of 135 MW but six companies did not honour the agreement to install power plants with an aggregate capacity of 80 MW each. As per the agreement, the units were to supply solar power at the cost of ₹ 7.02 to ₹ 8.60/kWh. According to UPPCL, cost of solar panels reduced over time. UPPCL said cost of solar power fell to ₹ 2.44/kWh because of reduction in prices of solar panels. Under such circumstances, the companies may not be allowed to set up power plants as per the previous arrangement, UPPCL said. Union ministry of new energy, through its letter, had asked the state government not to extend the deadline for installation of solar power projects.
Bengal’s Department of Power and Non-Conventional Energy Sources has proposed providing access to solar power to the small islands in the state, with 30 to 50 families on each, in the Sundarbans Delta and other rivers. There are two major hindrances to providing power to these small islands from the conventional electrical grid. Firstly, it is a costly proposition, and secondly, the electrical poles are often uprooted due to floods and storms, which these islands in the Sundarbans are prone to. Solar panels would be fitted on the roofs of homes, and these would provide captive power for use by the household members. Initially, a private agency, to be chosen through a bidding process, is going to be given the responsibility of maintenance, which would then be passed on to the gram panchayats.
The MNRE has clarified that a guideline for procurement of renewable power through competitive bidding would be notified shortly by the Centre. Till then, projects may be set up under existing provisions of the Electricity Act, 2003 under section 62 wherein the State Regulatory Commission is to be approached for fixation of tariff, the government said. HAREDA said that after the notification, any project developer may set up a project for generation of renewable energy as per the bidding guideline if it qualifies for the same. HAREDA said that in the renewable energy policy of the Haryana government, there is a provision for setting up of renewable power projects by independent power producers on the site identified by them. For this, they have to submit their proposal along with DPR to HAREDA. After approval of the DPR, they have to file a petition before the HERC for fixation of tariff for their projects for sale of power to the state grid.
With the steep fall in solar tariffs in the last two years, the MNRE has written to all states to ensure that solar developers do not get “undue benefits” from the development by insisting that solar projects meet the deadlines initially set for them without any extensions. The fall is largely due to the lowering of prices of solar cells and modules in the global market, especially in China, which has seen considerable overproduction. The MNRE is concerned that developers who signed PPAs at fairly high tariffs while solar equipment prices were also high, could earn a windfall over the next 25 years – most solar PPAs are for 25 years – if they delayed buying their requirements and did so after prices had dropped. Low solar power tariffs discovered in recent rounds of bidding for solar power projects has raised questions on the viability of projects.
NHPC Ltd has shut down its hydel power plant at Ramdi in Darjeeling hills after a mob of over 600 people began agitation outside the plant site. NHPC will resume power generation at Ramdi plant once it gets assurance of security of the unit. NHPC has another unit Teesta Low dam IV of 160 MW in Darjeeling hills.
A total of 41 under-construction hydro electric projects (above 25 MW) with a combined capacity of 11,792.5 MW are running behind schedule, Parliament was informed. The projects are lagging on account of natural calamities, delays in forest clearances and land acquisition and law and order problems. NHPC is scheduled to generate 4458.69 million units additional power from two of its under- construction projects – Parbati-II (800 MW) in Himachal Pradesh and Kishanganga hydro electric project (330 MW) in Jammu & Kashmir. While Parbati-II is scheduled to be commissioned in October 2018, Kishanganga is scheduled to begin in January 2018.
Wind energy companies have moved the Madras High Court against the Tamil Nadu electricity distribution company’s move to auction wind energy projects with a new base price, and the sector regulator’s decision to allow the auction. IWEA has moved the high court, challenging a TNERC order to allow Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corp Ltd hold a wind auction for 500 MW with the base price set at ₹ 3.46/kWh, a record low tariff found in the first and only wind auction in the country held in February. IWEA in its petition called TNERC’s order issued on June 2 “arbitrary, illegal, unjust and deserving to be quashed”. It argued that since an earlier tariff order of the regulator was valid till April 1, 2018, any fresh tariff related order could only be passed after this period had expired. TNERC had passed a comprehensive tariff order on wind energy, applicable for two years starting April 1, 2016, setting the wind power tariff at ₹ 4.16/kWh. Wind energy tariffs so far had been set by state regulators and mostly varied between ₹ 4/kWh and ₹ 6/kWh. The first wind auction was held in February by Solar Energy Corp of India Ltd. It saw wind energy tariffs fall sharply to ₹ 3.46/kWh. The petition also said that the final guidelines for states choosing to hold wind auctions had not yet been issued by the Centre, though draft guidelines had been circulated.
India and Russia have signed contracts for priority design works and supply of main equipment for units 5 and 6 of the KNPP in Tamil Nadu, two months after the main framework agreement for these units were signed. Three main contracts were signed between NPCIL and Russia’s JSC Atomstroyexport for priority design works, working design and supply of the main equipment for stage III of KNPP, the Russian company said. JSC Atomstroyexport is a key foreign trade engineering company of State Corporation “Rosatom” for construction of nuclear power facilities abroad. After overcoming initial hurdles, India and Russia signed the GFA and credit protocol for Units 5 and 6 of the KNPP on June 1. The KNPP was the outcome of an inter-governmental agreement between the erstwhile Soviet Union and India in 1988. It is the single largest nuclear power station in India. The power station was envisaged to have six units with total capacity to generate 6,000 MW of electricity (1,000 MW each).
A French firm, which is to build six atomic reactors at Jaitapur, has submitted a fresh plan to the NPCIL proposing to share a larger role in the engineering aspect of the project, the company said. The firm, EDF, and the NPCIL have also resolved to sign the GFA for the JNPP by the end of the year. The EDF is to build six reactors, each with a capacity of 1650 MW each. When operational, the proposed plant, some 500 km south of Mumbai, will be the largest nuclear power generation park in the country. A construction of a nuclear plant is usually discussed in terms of the EPC. The EDF has proposed to take care of the engineering part and a large chunk of the procurement of equipment which have to be sourced from abroad. This position has been different from what Areva, which has been taken over by EDF, had proposed when the negotiations had initially begun. However, the EDF insists that the NPCIL should take care of the construction part as it has an experience of building the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant.
Rest of the World
China’s solar industry is expected to produce 25 percent more panels in 2017 than last year, supported by domestic sales and demand from the US and emerging markets. China was expected to produce solar panels with a combined capacity of 60 GW this year. China produced panels with capacity of 48 GW in 2016. Despite growing global demand, China’s solar industry faced challenges ranging from possible tariffs abroad to inadequate grid connections at home. The US has told the World Trade Organization it was considering putting emergency “safeguard” tariffs on imported solar cells, a move aimed at shielding its industry from a damaging, unforeseen surge in imports. In China, solar generation has been hindered by wastage or curtailment, in which inadequate grid connections mean not all capacity is utilized. Environment group Greenpeace said solar curtailment rates across China rose 50 percent in 2015 and 2016, with more than 30 percent of available power in north-western province Gansu and Xinjiang failing to reach the grid. China had a total of 101.82 GW installed solar capacity by June, after adding 24.4 GW in the first six months of 2017, the industry association said. It will soon reach 110 GW, the target Beijing had aimed to achieved by 2020.
Top oil exporter Saudi Arabia has asked companies to qualify to bid for its first utility-scale wind power project at Dumat al-Jandal. Requests to qualify for the 400 MW wind project in the north of the kingdom will close on August 10, and proposals will be received from August 29. Bidding closes in January next year, the ministry’s REPDO said. The ministry had earlier said the Sakaka 300 MW solar PV plant and a 400 MW wind project in Midyan were part of the first round of projects. Saudi Arabia aims to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable energy annually by 2023 involving 60 projects. The renewables initiative involves investment estimated between $30 billion and $50 billion. The ministry has said the first round will be to generate 700 MW of renewable energy followed by 1.02 GW in the second round which will be split into 620 MW solar and 400 MW wind whose bidding could happen between the fourth quarter of this year and first quarter of 2018.
Scientists have designed new ‘smart’ solar glasses incorporated with coloured, semi-transparent organic solar cells that can generate electric power enough to operate devices such as hearing aids or step counters. Organic solar cells are flexible, transparent, and light-weight – and can be manufactured in arbitrary shapes or colours, researchers from Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie (KIT) in Germany said. They are suitable for a variety of applications that cannot be realised with conventional silicon solar cells. Researchers designed sunglasses with coloured, semitransparent solar cells applied onto lenses that supply a microprocessor and two displays with electric power. This paves the way for other future applications such as the integration of organic solar cells into windows or overhead glazing, researchers said.
Germany connected 626 MW of newly built offshore wind capacity to power grids in the first six months of this year and expects to see total installations of 900 MW in the full year, five industry groups, engineering body VDMA, wind energy group BWE, wind energy agency wab, the Offshore Windenergie Foundation and Group for Offshore Wind, said. The installed total is now 4,729 MW and if 900 MW were achieved, it would exceed the 818 MW added in 2016. The rate of expansion could mean the industry will beat government targets of 6,500 MW for 2020, they said. The wind power industry is moving away from an era of costly subsidies and is trying to become more commercially viable and to bring down costs for consumers. The industry groups said that latest bids by companies to build and run turbines at zero subsidy costs in the next decade offered encouragement and reason to expand. Germany’s network regulator in April approved 1,490 MW of offshore wind capacity on the German North Sea to be built in the middle of the next decade at costs well below expectations to utilities EnBW and Denmark’s DONG Energy.
MHI has agreed to acquire a 19.5% stake for an undisclosed sum in a new company that will be formed through the reorganization of Areva Group. In November 2016, EDF had agreed to buy Areva’s nuclear reactors business, a transaction which had been approved by the European Commission recently. According to MHI, the stake acquisition will expand its ties with EDF. It is also expected to bolster the relationship between Japan and France in the nuclear power sector based on the close ties of cooperation of MHI with the Areva Group and French utility EDF. MHI said that it will continue to work closely with EDF and the Areva Group for the completion of the transaction. It said that all processes regarding the same are scheduled to be done with by the year end.
State agencies have been ordered to review the economic viability of Dominion Energy Inc’s Millstone nuclear power plant, which critics want shut down in the face of cheaper energy sources. Since 2013, six reactors, including Dominion’s Kewaunee in Wisconsin, have shut for economic reasons. Another six are expected to shut over the next five years. Connecticut is among several states exploring rules to keep reactors in service to preserve carbon-free energy, jobs, taxes and a more diverse power pool. Other states looking at similar rules are Ohio, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. New York and Illinois adopted rules to subsidize some of their reactors in 2016. Dominion Energy Inc said it would keep fighting to get the Connecticut legislature to include power from the company’s Millstone nuclear plant included in a state energy procurement plan. But NRG Energy Inc vowed to fight Dominion’s proposal, calling it “a cynical scheme that should not be rewarded.” The state has solicited power from renewable sources of generation to support environmental programs. Dominion has said including nuclear power in this program will help cut the state’s electricity costs, which are among the highest in the country. Millstone is among several nuclear plants in the United States Northeast and Midwest that could close before their licenses expire, as low wholesale power prices have squeezed profits. The ISO said Dominion had already committed to generate power through May 2021, but noted it could retire the reactors so long as the company provides energy from another source. Connecticut is one of several states exploring ways to keep reactors in service to preserve carbon-free energy, jobs, taxes and a more diverse power pool. In 2016, New York and Illinois adopted rules to subsidize some reactors that were in danger of closing due to generators run on cheap natural gas. Ohio, Pennsylvania and New Jersey have also considered proposals to protect their reactors.
France will define a clear roadmap to fulfill its pledge to cut the share of nuclear power in its electricity generation to 50 percent by 2025. A 2015 law requires France to reduce in eight years the share of atomic power generation to 50 percent from over 75 percent currently, and include more renewable wind and solar generation. For France to meet that target, it might have to shut down up to 17 of its 58 nuclear reactors operated by state-controlled utility EDF. Newly elected French President has maintained the target of cutting French nuclear production by 2025. Since the 2015 law was passed, little had been done and there was no clear strategy on how France would meet the 50 percent target. The closure of the nuclear plants is a hot-button issue in France with trade unions and some political parties saying the plan would cripple the French nuclear sector.
Brazil is planning to lower the estimated capacity of several older hydroelectric dams before they are privatized by state-controlled power holding company Eletrobras. The revisions will reduce the amount of energy that the dams can legally offer to the market – part of an effort to create a more robust and predictable power grid as the government seeks more private investment for the sector. Earlier this year, a government study suggested that hydroelectric capacity estimates could be lowered by about 845 MW with nearly two-thirds of that coming from the massive Itaipu dam shared with neighbouring Paraguay. The proposed capacity revisions would not affect the hydro dams’ obligations, but would reduce their potential to generate revenue. By making them before Eletrobras puts the operations up for sale, the government is aiming to reduce uncertainty and bring more bidders to the table for the upcoming privatizations.
Democratic Republic of Congo has decided to more than double the size of its planned Inga 3 hydroelectric plant to make it more economical, after the $14 billion project was hit by financing problems. Inga 3 is part of a $50 billion-$80 billion project to expand hydroelectric dams along the Congo River, but the project has repeatedly been delayed by red tape and disagreements between Congo and its partners on the project. The plant would be built to produce between 10,000 and 12,000 MW of power, more than double the originally planned capacity of 4,800 MW.
GST: Goods and Services Tax, MW: Megawatt, GW: Gigawatt, MNRE: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, MPERC: Madhya Pradesh Electricity Regulatory Commission, kWh: kilowatt hour, NGT: National Green Tribunal, CPCB: Central Pollution Control Board, PV: photovoltaic, AIIMS: All India Institute of Medical Science, PHFI: Public Health Foundation of India, LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas, UPPCL: Uttar Pradesh Power Corp Ltd, HAREDA: Haryana Renewable Energy Development Agency, HERC: Haryana Electricity Regulatory Commission, PPAs: Power Purchase Agreements, IWEA: Indian Wind Energy Association, TNERC: Tamil Nadu Electricity Regulatory Commission, KNPP: Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant, NPCIL: Nuclear Power Plant, Nuclear Power Corp of India Ltd, GFA: General Framework Agreement, HEAL: Health and Environment Alliance, EDF: Electricite de France, JNPP: Jaitapur Nuclear Power Plant, REPDO: Renewable Energy Project Development Office, MHI: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, US: United States
Courtesy: Energy News Monitor | Volume XIV; Issue 10